The central neurological disorders affect the central nervous system determining dysfunctions according to the region and length of lesion. On this clinical state, levels of total disability until the independence can be found. The neurological diseases represent a world public health problem and one of the main causes of death or incapacity, which affect all social groups. On this context, the search of more efficiency ways on the treatment for clinical problems of neurological diseases represents the purpose of many studies. On these, the utilization of botulinum toxin stands out as one of the main therapeutic methods on treatment of some neurological disorders deficits. The objective of this study is to approach the utilization and the effects of botulinum toxin in patients with central neurological disorders. It was accomplished a bibliographic review in scientific literature published on period 1984-2004 in Lilacs, Medline, Pubmed, and Scielo selecting the studies based on including and excluding criterias follow to analysis of information and writing in relevant topics for the study. There is a consensus among the authors in relation to the therapeutic value of botulinum toxin in neurological manifestations although the great emphasis to be the treatment of spasticity. Therefore the use of botulinum toxin is a therapeutic method that shows excellent perspectives of improving complications resulted of some central neurological diseases.